JAVA BEGINNERS TUTORIAL – Working with Strings

Strings are a sequence of characters. In the Java, strings are objects.

The Java platform provides the String class to create and manipulate strings.

Creating Strings:

The most direct way to create a string is to write:

String greeting = "Hello Java!";

Whenever it encounters a string literal in your code, the compiler creates a String object with its value in this case, “Hello Java!’.

As with any other object, you can create String objects by using the new keyword and a constructor. The String class has eleven constructors that allow you to provide the initial value of the string using different sources, such as an array of characters.

public class StringSample{

   public static void main(String args[]){
      char[] helloArray = { 'h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', '.'};
      String helloString = new String(helloArray);  
      System.out.println( helloString );
   }
}

The String class is immutable, so that once it is created a String object cannot be changed.

String Length:

Methods used to obtain information about an object are known as accessor methods. One accessor method that you can use with strings is the length() method, which returns the number of characters contained in the string object.

After the following two lines of code have been executed, len equals 17:

public class StringSample {
   public static void main(String args[]) {
      String palindrome = "Dot saw I was Tod";
      int len = palindrome.length();
      System.out.println( "String Length is : " + len );
   }
}

Concatenating Strings:

The String class includes a method for concatenating two strings:

string1.concat(string2);

This returns a new string that is string1 with string2 added to it at the end. You can also use the concat() method with string literals, as in:

"My name is ".concat("Zara");

Strings are more commonly concatenated with the + operator, as in:

"Hello," + " world" + "!"

example:

public class StringSample {

   public static void main(String args[]) {
      String string1 = "saw I was ";
      System.out.println("Dot " + string1 + "Tod");
   }
}

Creating Format Strings:

You have printf() and format() methods to print output with formatted numbers. The String class has an equivalent class method, format(), that returns a String object rather than a PrintStream object.

Using String’s static format() method allows you to create a formatted string that you can reuse, as opposed to a one-time print statement. For example, instead of:

System.out.printf("The value of the float variable is " +
                  "%f, while the value of the integer " +
                  "variable is %d, and the string " +
                  "is %s", floatVar, intVar, stringVar);

you can write:

String fs;
fs = String.format("The value of the float variable is " +
                   "%f, while the value of the integer " +
                   "variable is %d, and the string " +
                   "is %s", floatVar, intVar, stringVar);
System.out.println(fs);

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